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حاشیه نشینان و ارتکاب جرایم اجتماعی، مطالعه موردی: شهر یزد
|پژوهشهای جغرافیای انسانی|
|مقاله 10، دوره 42، شماره 2 - شماره پیاپی 72، مرداد 1389، صفحه 157-166 اصل مقاله (221.79 K)|
|حسن حکمت نیا1؛ سید علیرضا افشانی2|
|1استادیار دانشگاه پیام نور|
|2استادیار دانشکده علوم اجتماعی، دانشگاه یزد|
|حاشیه نشینی یکی از پیامدهای صنعتی شدن و رشد شهرها در کشورهای م ختلف، اعم از توسعه یافته یا در|
حال توسعه اس ت . حاشیه نشینی پدیده ای نامیمون و ناهمسو با سایر ابعاد جامعه تلقی م ی شود، چرا که به
نوبه خود پیامدهای متعددی برای جامعه به دنبال دارد که یکی از مهم ترین آنها رشد انحراف اجتماعی
است. هدف تحقیق حاضر بررسی رابطه حاشی ه نشینی با ارتکاب جرایم اجتماعی در شهر یزد بوده است .
فرضیه اصلی تحقیق این است که بین وضعیت بد اقتصادی و معیشتی حاشی ه نشینان و ارتکاب جرایم
اجتماعی آنها رابطه وجود دارد . روش تحقیق از نوع پیمایشی بوده است . جامعه آماری تحقیق را کلیه
خانوارهای ساکن در حاشیه شه ر یزد تشکیل می داد. با توجه به پراکندگی متغیر اصلی تحقیق در
پیش آزمون انجام شده و سطح اطمینان 95 درصد، نمون ه ای به حجم 282 نفر از ساکنان مناطق حاشی ه ای
شهر یزد انتخاب و به صورت حضوری با آنها مصاحبه شد . طبق یافته های تحقیق بین بیکاری، درآمد
خانواده و ارتکا ب جرایم اجتماعی رابطه معنی داری وجود دار د . افراد بیکار و با درآمد پایین نسبت به افراد
شاغل و افراد با درآمد بالا بیشتر مرتکب جرایم اجتماعی شده اند. همچنین نتایج تحقیق نشان داد که بین
مهاجرت، تحصیلات پدر، تحصیلات مادر و ارتکاب جرایم اجتماعی رابطه معنی داری وجود ندار د . نتایج
این تحقیق، همسو با نظریات قشربندی اجتماعی و به ویژه نظریه محرومیت و همچنین نظریه فشار است
که مدعی است افراد به دلیل داشتن مشکلات اقتصادی و کمبود درآمد از یک سو و مقایسه خود با
دیگرانی که در شهر هستند از سوی دیگر، تمایل زیادی به ارتکاب رفتار مجرمانه پیدا م یکنند.
|بیکاری؛ جرایم اجتماعی؛ حاشی هنشینی؛ شهر یزد.؛ فقر|
|عنوان مقاله [English]|
|Informal Settlement and Social Crimes, Case Study: City of Yazd|
|H. Hekmatnia1؛ S. A. Afshani2|
Suburban settlement is defined as life condition of those who are considered as the residents of
urban society, but are in undesirable conditions considering income and utilization of urban
facilities and services.
During the recent years in Iran, urban settlement resulted in suburban settlement and this
growing phenomenon has caused many economic, social, cultural, security and environmental
problems in metropolitans of Iran.
Suburban settlement is regarded as one of the consequences of internal migration from
villages to cities in developing countries such as Iran and has attracted the focus of social and
urban programmers. This phenomenon has in fact come into existence as a result of the
movement of these societies from traditional to modern style and the related contradictions.
Suburban settlement has a close and direct relationship with crime. Diversity, luxury and
dramatic difference between the social classes in big cities and also high living costs cause
unspecialized immigrants with insufficient income to take any action, even illegal, to fulfill their
needs. In such areas, due to lack of human values, social deviation grows very rapidly and
crimes such as theft, addiction, smuggling and prostitution will increase. Moreover, increase in
abusing drugs and disorder in families is among the ominous consequences of migration from
villages to cities. Gathering of immigrants with various cultures in suburban areas, together with
unemployment resulted in crimes. Sociological studies and researchers have shown that
suburban settlement has a close and direct relationship with increasing crimes and in some
cases, this relationship is mutual, i.e. suburban settlement and crimes are both causes and effects
of each other.
Yazd has also faced suburban settlement in some old and surrounding areas. The living
condition in these areas is qualitatively different from other areas and regions of Yazd. It is
much lower. Factors such as unemployment, poverty, lack of standard accommodations, being
in social isolation and not being commited to values have caused social abnormalities and urban
Therefore, suburban settlement in Yazd has not only caused heterogeneity in the appearance
of the city, but it has also caused cultural imbalance, increase in crimes, contradictions, poverty
and social heterogeneity and etc. This study aims to answer these questions:
What kind of relationship exists between suburban settlement and social crimes in the city of
Yazd? Is there any relationship between family income, parents’ level of education,
unemployment and migration and social crimes?
A survey has been done and the previous researches have been reviewed to determine the
theoretical framework of the study. This study is applied in terms of purpose and with respect to
time and depth criterion has been sectional and wide respectively. The data collection
instrument has been a questionnaire and the data has been analyzed using SPSS software.
All The subjects in this study had in common the feature of settling in suburban areas of
khtargah, Amir Abad, Sajadieh, Nasr Abad, Kasnavieh, Mehdi Abad, Fahadan, Maryam Abad,
Charkhab and Seyed Alshohada. The sample size was calculated to be 282 families using
coukeran formula and variance taken from pretest, the level of significance of 95 percent and
the probable error of 5 percent.
Results and Discussion
One of The findings of this study is the relationship between income and crime in suburban
areas. The theory of poverty emphasizes the role of insufficient income in committing crimes.
One of the important factors in developing Suburban settlement is the low income of people
living in these areas. This issue is important from the viewpoint of economical geography.
These people are hardly able to afford the lowest level of life for their families. Other factors
such as illiteracy, quitting education in primary levels, financial poverty, malnutrition, physical
illness, irregular employment, unemployment and working in farms and traditional working
places have resulted in low income for these people. This problem causes these people to move
from context to The margin (edge).
Another factor having a significant relationship with social crimes is unemployment.
Regarding unemployed people, low income and economical pressures on one hand, and social
and mental pressures on the other hand, make them have wrong thoughts and commit crimes.
To decrease these crimes, better jobs should be provided for at least the second generation of
these families. Some of the actions that should be taken are as follows: A) teaching them
necessary skills to find appropriate and permanent jobs, B) providing them with credit and loans
both for unemployed people and those with low income, C) encouraging private and public
sections for investment and providing job opportunities, D) preventing industries, factories and
governmental organizations from being centralized in big cities, E) assisting economy and
agriculture, e. g., by increasing agricultural budgets, F) compiling long-term endogenous
strategy in the area and making dramatic changes in the economy of the area, specially
indication for production and deletion of urban intercession and correction of consumption
One of The crucial factors for the families to settle in the suburban areas is the low price of
accommodation and results in these areas. In order for low-income people to have access to
appropriate accommodation in the city and reduce the current problems, it seems essential to
modify the costs of purchasing and renting houses and to organize the rental system.
Applying supporting, supervising and controlling policies in providing social accommodation
can solve some of the problems. In addition, comprehensive regional and urban plans and
middling programs in the residence section should be carried out and at the same time they
should be connected with construction activities in the city.
In the city of Yazd, one part of the solution is providing people with appropriate conditions
for construction with the assistance of government and private sections and cooperation of
urban management to increase legal constructions and transfer facilities to renew the old texture
and also cooperation of benevolent people.
In sum, it should be noted that the findings of this study are congruent with the theories of
social deprivation and pressure which hold that crimes are the result of financial problems, low
income and one’s comparing oneself with those who live in the cities.
|poverty, Social crimes, Suburban settlement, Unemployment, Yazd city.|
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