|تعداد مشاهده مقاله||103,618,350|
|تعداد دریافت فایل اصل مقاله||81,463,579|
Modeling spatial distribution of Tehran air pollutants using geostatistical methods incorporate uncertainty maps
|مقاله 1، دوره 2، شماره 4، دی 2016، صفحه 375-386 اصل مقاله (1.08 M)|
|نوع مقاله: Original Research Paper|
|شناسه دیجیتال (DOI): 10.7508/pj.2016.04.001|
|Mansour Halimi 1؛ Manuchehr Farajzadeh1؛ Zahra Zarei2|
|1Department of Climatology, TarbiatModares University, Tehran, Iran|
|2Department of Climatology, Lorestan University, Iran|
|The estimation of pollution fields, especially in densely populated areas, is an important application in the field of environmental science due to the significant effects of air pollution on public health. In this paper, we investigate the spatial distribution of three air pollutants in Tehran’s atmosphere: carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and atmospheric particulate matters less than 10 μm in diameter (PM10μm). To do this, we use four geostatistical interpolation methods: Ordinary Kriging, Universal Kriging, Simple Kriging, and Ordinary Cokriging with Gaussian semivariogram, to estimate the spatial distribution surface for three mentioned air pollutants in Tehran’s atmosphere. The data were collected from 21 air quality monitoring stations located in different districts of Tehran during 2012 and 2013 for 00UTC. Finally, we evaluate the Kriging estimated surfaces using three statistical validation indexes: mean absolute error (MAE), root mean square error (RMSE) that can be divided into systematic and unsystematic errors (RMSES, RMSEU), and D-Willmot. Estimated standard errors surface or uncertainty band of each estimated pollutant surface was also developed. The results indicated that using two auxiliary variables that have significant correlation with CO, the ordinary Cokriginga scheme for CO consistently outperforms all interpolation methods for estimating this pollutant and simple Kriging is the best model for estimation of NO2 and PM10. According to optimal model, the highest concentrations of PM10 are observed in the marginal areas of Tehran while the highest concentrations of NO2 and CO are observed in the central and northern district of Tehran.|
|air pollution؛ geostatistical schema؛ Kriging؛ uncertainty map؛ TEHRAN|
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