|تعداد مشاهده مقاله||107,968,053|
|تعداد دریافت فایل اصل مقاله||84,372,354|
Quality water not everywhere: Exploratory Analysis of Water Quality Across Ebocha-Obrikom Oil and Gas Flaring Area in the Core Niger Delta Region of Nigeria.
|دوره 8، شماره 3، مرداد 2022، صفحه 751-778 اصل مقاله (1.37 M)|
|نوع مقاله: Original Research Paper|
|شناسه دیجیتال (DOI): 10.22059/poll.2021.331612.1201|
|Morufu Olalekan Raimi* 1؛ Henry Olawale Sawyerr2؛ Clinton Ifeanyichukwu Ezekwe3؛ Afolabi Olaniyi Opasola4|
|1Department of Community Medicine, Environmental Health Unit, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Gloryland Campus, Amassoma. Bayelsa State. Nigeria.|
|2Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Health, Allied and Environmental Science, College of Pure and Applied Sciences, Kwara State University, Nigeria|
|3Weather Forecasting Services, Nigerian Meteorological Agency Abuja/Department of Geography and Environmental Management, University of Port Harcourt, Choba Town, Rivers State, Nigeria|
|4Department of Environmental Management and Toxicology, Kwara State University, Malete, Kwara State, Nigeria|
To compare water quality parameters in the vicinity of Gas Flaring Area of Ebocha-Obrikom of Rivers State with that of the recommended standards.
The research utilized standard analytical procedures. All sampling, conservation, transportation and analysis followed standard procedures described in APHA (2012). All the samples collected were transported to the laboratory through keeping in an icebox to prevent degradation of the organic substances.
Result depicts that Turbidity, DO, BOD, COD, TSS, Magnesium, Iron, Cadmium, Lead, Chromium, and Nickel exceeded the desirable limit meant for drinking purpose as well as could potentially pose threats toward human society. Hence, remain unsuitable for drinking, as the inhabitants were more vulnerable for their total lifetime period of exposure through continuous consumption of unsuitable drinking water.
It is recommended that the local government environmental health officers and other regulatory agencies frequently monitor the levels of these pollutants within the area and also ensure strict adherence to guidelines to ensure a healthy environment. As exposure to the above stated parameters can have a remarkable impact on human health living in the vicinity of the gas flaring area by drinking water around the study area; thus, groundwater needs to treated before using for household purpose or drinking. Thus, this study would help in decision making for stakeholders and relevant authorities in the execution of reasonable groundwater management strategies and remediation plans in the area to protect public and environmental health.
|Decision making؛ Stakeholders؛ Indigenous populations؛ Wasted health؛ Water quality|
Adedoyin, O. O., Olalekan, R. M., Olawale, S. H. and Emmanuel, O. O. (2020). A review of environmental, social and health impact assessment (Eshia) practice in Nigeria: a panacea for sustainable development and decision making. MOJ Public Health. 2020;9(3):81‒87. DOI: 10.15406/mojph.2020.09.00328.https://medcraveonline.com/MOJPH/MOJPH-09-00328.pdf.
Adewumi, A. J. and Laniyan, T. A. (2020). Ecological and human health risks associated with metals in water from Anka Artisanal Gold Mining Area, Nigeria. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment. https://doi.org/10.1080/10807039.2019.1710694.
Afolabi, A. S. and Raimi, M. O (2021). When Water Turns Deadly: Investigating Source Identification and Quality of Drinking Water in Piwoyi Community of Federal Capital Territory, Abuja Nigeria. Online Journal of Chemistry, 2021, 1, 38-58; DOI: 10.31586/ojc.2021.010105. www.scipublications.org/journal/index.php/ojc.
Ajayi, F. A., Raimi, M. O., Steve-Awogbami O. C., Adeniji A. O. and Adebayo P. A. (2020) Policy Responses to Addressing the Issues of Environmental Health Impacts of Charcoal Factory in Nigeria: Necessity Today; Essentiality Tomorrow. Communication, Society and Media. Vol 3, No 3. DOI: https://doi.org/10.22158/csm.v3n3p1. http://www.scholink.org/ojs/index.php/csm/article/view/2940.
Akerstrom M., Barregard L., Lundh T. and Sallsten G. (2013). The relationship between cadmium in kidney and cadmium in urine and blood in an environmentally exposed population. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 268(3):286–293, PMID: 23454399, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.taap.2013.02.009.
Alagoa, E. J. and Derefaka, A. A. (2002). The Land and People of Rivers State: Eastern Niger Delta. Port Harcourt: Onyoma Research Publications. Pp.8-15.
Alagoa, E. J. (2005). A History of the Niger Delta: An Historical Interpretation of Ijo Oral Tradition. Port Harcourt. Onyoma Research Publications. Pp. 25-36.
American Public Health Association (APHA) (2012). Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater, 22nd edn. American Public Health Association, Washington, DC.
Bernard, A. (2008). Cadmium & its adverse effects on human health. Indian J Med Res 128(4): 557–64.
Cervantes, G. K., Llanas-Cornejo D. and Husi H. (2017). CVD and oxidative stress. J Clin Med 6(2):22, https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm6020022.
Cervantes, C., Campos-García, J., Devars, S., Gutiérrez-Corona, F., Loza Tavera, H., Torres-Guzmán, J. C. and Moreno-Sánchez, R. (2001). Interactions of chromium with microorganisms and plants. FEMS microbiology reviews, 25(3), 335–347. doi: 10.1111/j.1574-6976.2001.tb00581.x.
Chakraborty, S., Dutta, A. R., Sural, S., Gupta, D. and Sen, S. (2013). Ailing bones and failing kidneys: a case of chronic cadmium toxicity. Ann Clin Biochem 50(5): 492–495.
Chowdhury, R., Ramond, A., O’Keeffe, L. M., Shahzad, S., Kunutsor, S. K., Muka, T., Gregson J., Willeit P., Warnakula, S., Khan, H., Chowdhury, S., Gobin, R., Franco O. H. and Di Angelantonio, E. (2018). Environmental toxic metal contaminants and risk of cardiovascular disease: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ 362:k3310, PMID: 30158148, https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.k3310.
Chukwu, O. (2008). Analysis of Groundwater Pollution from Abattoir waste in Minna. Nigeria. Research Journal of Diary Science, 2(4):74-77.
Dami, A., Ayuba H. K. and Amukali, O. (2012). Effects of Gas Flaring and Oil Spillage on Rainwater Collected for Drinking in Okpai and Beneku, Delta State, Nigeria. Global Journal of Human Social Sciences, 12(13): 7-10.
Deinkuro, N. S., Charles, W. K., Raimi M. O. and Nimlang H. N. (2021). Oil Spills in the Niger Delta Region, Nigeria: Environmental Fate of Toxic Volatile Organics. 28 June 2021, PREPRINT (Version 1) available at Research Square. DOI: https://doi.org/10.21203/rs.3.rs-654453/v1.
Duan, N., Wang, X. L., Liu XD., Lin C. and Hou J. (2010). Effect of anaerobic fermentation residues on a chromium-contaminated soil-vegetable system. Procedia Environmental Sciences 2: 1585–1597.
Egbueri, J. C. and Unigwe, C. O. (2020). Understanding the extent of heavy metal pollution in drinking water supplies from Umunya, Nigeria: An indexical and statistical assessment. Analytical Letters, 53(13), 2122–2144. https://doi.org/10.1080/00032719.2020. 1731521.
Ezenwaji, E. E. and Ezenweani, I. D. (2018). Spatial analysis of groundwater quality in Warri Urban Nigeria. Sustainable Water Resources and Management, 1, 2. https://doi.org/10.1007/ s40899-018-0264-2.
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) (2021) Global assessment of soil pollution". Summary for Policy Makers. Rome.
Ghani, A. (2011). Effect of chromium toxicity on growth, chlorophyll and some mineral nutrients of Brassica juncea L. Egyptian Acad J Biol Sci 2(1): 9–15.
Gift, R. A., Olalekan, R. M, Owobi, O. E, Oluwakemi, R. M, Anu, B and Funmilayo, A. A (2020). Nigerians crying for availability of electricity and water: a key driver to life coping measures for deepening stay at home inclusion to slow covid-19 spread. Open Access Journal of Science. 2020;4(3):69‒80. DOI: 10.15406/oajs.2020.04.00155.
Gift, R. A. and Olalekan, R. M (2020). Access to electricity and water in Nigeria: a panacea to slow the spread of Covid-19. Open Access J Sci. 2020;4(2):34. DOI: 10.15406/oajs.2020.04.00148. https://medcrave.com/index.php?/articles/det/21409/.
Goyer, R. A. (1990). Lead toxicity: from overt to subclinical to subtle health effects. Environ Health Perspect. 86: 177–181.
Hasan, M. M. and Gerber, N. (2016). The impacts of piped water on water quality, sanitation, hygiene and health in rural households of north-western Bangladesh -a quasi-experimental analysis. ZEF Discussion Papers 217.
Henry, O. S., Morufu, O. R., Adedotun, T. A. and Oluwaseun, E. O (2019a). Measures of Harm from Heavy Metal Pollution in Battery Technicians’ Workshop within Ilorin Metropolis, Kwara State, Nigeria. Scholink Communication, Society and Media ISSN 2576-5388 (Print) ISSN 2576-5396 (Online) Vol. 2, No. 2, 2019 www.scholink.org/ojs/index.php/csm. DOI: https://doi.org/10.22158/csm.v2n2p73.
Henry, O. S., Odipe, E. O., Olawale, S. A. and Raimi, M. O., (2019b). Bacteriological Assessment of Selected Hand Dug Wells in Students’ Residential Area: A Case Study of Osun State College of Health Technology, Ilesa, Nigeria. Global Scientific Journal, Volume 7, Issue 1, January 2019, Online: ISSN 2320-9186. www.globalscientificjournal.com.
Hu, X. F., Singh, K. and Chan, H. M. (2018). Mercury exposure, blood pressure, and hypertension: a systematic review and dose–response meta-analysis. Environ Health Perspect 126(7):076002, PMID: 30073953, https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP2863.
Hussain, M. I., Morufu, O. R. and Henry, O. S. (2021a). Patterns of Chemical Pesticide Use and Determinants of Self-Reported Symptoms on Farmers Health: A Case Study in Kano State for Kura Local Government Area of Nigeria. Research on World Agricultural Economy. Vol 2, No. 1. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.36956/rwae.v2i1.342. http://ojs.nassg.org/index.php/rwae/issue/view/31
Hussain, M. I., Morufu, O. R. and Henry, O. S (2021b). Probabilistic Assessment of Self-Reported Symptoms on Farmers Health: A Case Study in Kano State for Kura Local Government Area of Nigeria. Research on World Agricultural Economy. Vol 2, No. 1. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.36956/rwae.v2i1.336. http://ojs.nassg.org/index.php/rwae-cn/article/view/336/pdf.
Isah, H. M., Sawyerr, H. O., Raimi, M. O., Bashir, B. G., Haladu, S. and Odipe, O. E. (2020a). Assessment of Commonly Used Pesticides and Frequency of Self-Reported Symptoms on Farmers Health in Kura, Kano State, Nigeria. Journal of Education and Learning Management (JELM), HolyKnight, vol. 1, 31-54. doi.org/10.46410/jelm.2020.1.1.05. https://holyknight.co.uk/journals/jelm-articles/.
Isah, H. M., Raimi, M. O., Sawyerr, H. O., Odipe, O. E., Bashir, B. G. and Suleiman, H. (2020b). Qualitative Adverse Health Experience Associated with Pesticides Usage among Farmers from Kura, Kano State, Nigeria. Merit Research Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences (ISSN: 2354-323X) Vol. 8(8) pp. 432-447, August, 2020. DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.4008682. https://meritresearchjournals.org/mms/content/2020/August/Isah%20et%20al.htm.
Islam, S., Bhuiyan, M., Rume, T. and Azam, G. (2017). Hydrogeochemical investigation of groundwater in shallow coastal aquifer of Khulna District, Bangladesh. Applied Water Science, 7, 1–18.
Koleayo, O. O., Morufu, O. R., Temitope, O. W., Oluwaseun, E. O. and Amos, L. O. (2021). Public Health Knowledge and Perception of Microplastics Pollution: Lessons from the Lagos Lagoon, 10 May 2021, PREPRINT (Version 1) available at Research Square [https://doi.org/10.21203/rs.3.rs-506361/v1].
Lanphear, B. P, Rauch, S, Auinger, P, Allen, R. W. and Hornung, R. W. (2018). Low-level lead exposure and mortality in US adults: a population-based cohort study. Lancet Public Health 3(4):e177–e184, PMID: 29544878, https://doi.org/10.1016/S2468- 2667(18)30025-2.
Liu, T., Zhang, M., Guallar, E., Wang, G., Hong, X., Wang, X. and Mueller N. T. (2019). Trace minerals, heavy metals, and preeclampsia: findings from the Boston Birth Cohort. J Am Heart Assoc 8(16):e012436, PMID: 31426704, https://doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.119. 012436.
Malcolm, I. A., Youngson, A. F. and Soulsby, C. (2003). Survival of salmonid eggs in a degraded gravel-bed stream: effects of groundwater - surface water interactions. River Res. Appl. 19, 303–316. doi: 10.1002/rra.706.
Martin, S. and Griswold, W. (2009). Human health effects of heavy metals. Environmental Science and Technology Briefs for Citizens (15): 1–6.
Mohanty, M. and Kumar P. H. (2013). Effect of ionic and chelate assisted hexavalent chromium on mung bean seedlings (Vigna Radiata l. Wilczek. Var k-851) during seedling growth. JSPB 9(2): 232–241.
Morrison, G. O., Fatoki, O. S. and Ekberg, A. (2001). Assessment of the Impact of Point Source Pollution from the Keiskammahoek Sewage Treatment Plant on the Keiskamma River. Water South Africa, 27: 475-480.
Morufu, O. R., Aziba-anyam, G. R. and Teddy, C. A. (2021a). ‘Silent Pandemic’: Evidence-Based Environmental and Public Health Practices to Respond to the Covid-19 Crisis. IntechOpen. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.100204.
Morufu, O. R., Aziba-anyam, G. R. and Teddy, C. A (2021b). Evidence-based Environmental and Public Health Practices to Respond to the COVID-19 Crisis, 07 May 2021, PREPRINT (Version 1) available at Research Square [https://doi.org/10.21203/rs.3.rs-504983/v1] https://europepmc.org/article/PPRID/PPR335534; EMSID:EMS123969.
Morufu, O. R., Tonye, V. O., Ogah, A., Henry, A. E. and Abinotami, W. E. (2021c). Articulating the effect of Pesticides Use and Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs): The Science of Improving Lives through Decision Impacts. Research on World Agricultural Economy. Vol 2, No. 1. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.36956/rwae.v2i1.347. http://ojs.nassg.org/index.php/rwae/issue/view/31.
Morufu, O. R., Ebikapaye, O., Tuebi, M., Aziba-anyam, G. R., Adedoyin, O. O., Aishat, F. A., Mariam, O. R. and Beatrice, O. J. (2021d). Do Weak Institutions Prolong Crises? [#ENDSARs] in the Light of the Challenges and opportunities beyond COVID-19 Pandemic and the Next Normal in Nigeria. Communication, Society and Media. ISSN 2576-5388 (Print) ISSN 2576-5396 (Online) Vol. 4, No. 2, DOI: https://doi.org/10.22158/csm.v4n2p1. http://www.scholink.org/ojs/index.php/csm/article/view/3790.
Morufu, O. R., Tonye, V. O. and Adedoyin, O. O. (2021e). Creating the Healthiest Nation: Climate Change and Environmental Health Impacts in Nigeria: A Narrative Review. Scholink Sustainability in Environment. ISSN 2470-637X (Print) ISSN 2470-6388 (Online) Vol. 6, No. 1, 2021 www.scholink.org/ojs/index.php/se. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.22158/se.v6n1p61.
Morufu, O. R. (2021). “Self-reported Symptoms on Farmers Health and Commonly Used Pesticides Related to Exposure in Kura, Kano State, Nigeria”. Annals of Community Medicine & Public Health. 1(1): 1002.
Morufu, R. and Clinton E. (2017). Assessment of Trace Elements in Surface and Ground Water Quality (2017) LAP Lambert Academic Publishing. Mauritius. ISBN: 978-3-659-38813-2. www.omniscriptum.com.
Mostafa, M. G., Helal Uddin, S. M., Haque, A.B.M.H. (2017). Assessment of hydro geochemistry and groundwater quality of Rajshahi City in Bangladesh. Appl Water Sci 7, 4663–4671. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13201-017-0629-y.
Mudgal, V., Madaan, N., Mudgal, A., Singh, R. B. and Mishra, S. (2010). Effect of toxic metals on human health. Open Nutraceuticals J 3: 94–99.
Nath, K., Shyam, S., Singh, D. and Shanna, Y. K. (2008). Effect of chromium and tannery effluent toxicity on metabolism and growth in cowpea (Vigna sinensis L. Saviex Hassk) seedling. Res Environ Life Sci 1: 91–94.
Nordberg, G. F., Nogawa, K. and Nordberg, M. (2015). Cadmium. In: Handbook on the Toxicology of Metals. Nordberg GF, Nordberg M, eds. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier, 667–716.
Odipe, O. E., Raimi, M. O. and Suleiman, F. (2018). Assessment of Heavy Metals in Effluent Water Discharges from Textile Industry and River Water at Close Proximity: A Comparison of Two Textile Industries from Funtua and Zaria, North Western Nigeria. Madridge Journal of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences. 2018; 1(1): 1-6.doi: 10.18689/mjaes-1000101.
Odubo, T. R. and Raimi, M. O (2019). Resettlement and Readjustment Patterns of Rural Dwellers During and After Flood Disasters in Bayelsa State Nigeria. British Journal of Environmental Sciences Vol .7, No .3, Pp. 45-52, July 2019. www.eajournals.org.
Ogoni, H. A (2010). Ethical Perspective of Oil and Gas Exploration in Nigeria in Nigeria 5th Anniversary of Hoscom of Nigeria Oil and Gas.
Okoyen, E., Raimi M. O., Omidiji A. O. and Ebuete A. W (2020). Governing the Environmental Impact of Dredging: Consequences for Marine Biodiversity in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. Insights Mining Science and technology 2020; 2(3): 555586. DOI: 10.19080/IMST.2020.02.555586.
Olalekan, M. R., Abiola, I., Ogah, A. and Dodeye, E. O. (2021). Exploring How Human Activities Disturb the Balance of Biogeochemical Cycles: Evidence from the Carbon, Nitrogen and Hydrologic Cycles. Research on World Agricultural Economy. Volume 02, Issue 03. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.36956/rwae.v2i3.426. http://ojs.nassg.org/index.php/rwae.
Olalekan, R. M., Oluwatoyin, O. A., Olawale, S. H., Emmanuel, O. O. and Olalekan, A. Z. (2020a). A Critical Review of Health Impact Assessment: Towards Strengthening the Knowledge of Decision Makers Understand Sustainable Development Goals in the Twenty-First Century: Necessity Today; Essentiality Tomorrow. Research and Advances: Environmental Sciences. 2020(1): 72-84. DOI: 10.33513/RAES/2001-13. https://ospopac.com/journal/environmental-sciences/early-online.
Olalekan, R. M., Oluwatoyin, O., and Olalekan, A. (2020b). Health Impact Assessment: A tool to Advance the Knowledge of Policy Makers Understand Sustainable Development Goals: A Review. ES Journal of Public Health; 1(1); 1002. https://escientificlibrary.com/public-health/in-press.php.
Olalekan, R. M., Dodeye, E. O., Efegbere, H. A., Odipe, O. E., Deinkuro, N. S., Babatunde A., and Ochayi, E. O (2020c). Leaving No One Behind? Drinking-Water Challenge on the Rise in Niger Delta Region of Nigeria: A Review. Merit Research Journal of Environmental Science and Toxicology (ISSN: 2350-2266) Vol. 6(1): 031-049 DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.3779288.
Olalekan, R. M., Muhammad, I. H., Okoronkwo, U. L. and Akopjubaro, E. H. (2020d). Assessment of safety practices and farmer’s behaviors adopted when handling pesticides in rural Kano state, Nigeria. Arts & Humanities Open Access Journal. 2020;4(5):191‒201. DOI: 10.15406/ahoaj.2020.04.00170.
Olalekan, R. M., Adedoyin, O. O., Ayibatonbira, A. A., Anu, B., Emmanuel, O. O. and Sanchez, N. D., (2019). “Digging deeper” evidence on water crisis and its solution in Nigeria for Bayelsa state: a study of current scenario. International Journal of Hydrology. 2019;3(4):244‒257. DOI: 10.15406/ijh.2019.03.00187.
Olalekan, R. M., Vivien, O. T., Adedoyin, O. O., Oluwaseun, O. E. and Ekoja, O. O. (2018a). The sources of water supply, sanitation facilities and hygiene practices in oil producing communities in central senatorial district of Bayelsa state, Nigeria. MOJ Public Health. 2018;7(6):337‒345. DOI: 10.15406/mojph.2018.07.00265.
Olalekan, R. M., Omidiji, A. O., Nimisngha, D., Odipe, O. E. and Olalekan, A. S. (2018b). Health Risk Assessment on Heavy Metals Ingestion through Groundwater Drinking Pathway for Residents in an Oil and Gas Producing Area of Rivers State, Nigeria. Open Journal of Yangtze Gas and Oil, 3, 191-206. https://doi.org/10.4236/ojogas.2018.33017.
Oluwaseun, E. O., Raimi, M. O., Nimisingha, D. S., Abdulraheem, A. F., Okolosi-Patainnocent, E., Habeeb, M. L., and Mary, F. (2019). Assessment of Environmental Sanitation, Food Safety Knowledge, Handling Practice among Food Handlers of Bukateria Complexes in Iju Town, Akure North of Ondo-State, Nigeria. Acta Scientific Nutritional Health 3.6 (2019): 186-200. DOI: 10.31080/ASNH.2019.03.0308.
Omidiji, A. O. and Raimi, M. O. (2019). Practitioners Perspective of Environmental, Social and Health Impact Assessment (ESHIA) Practice in Nigeria: A Vital Instrument for Sustainable Development. Paper Presented at the Association for Environmental Impact Assessment of Nigeria (AEIAN) On Impact Assessment: A Tool for Achieving the Sustainable Development Goals in Nigeria, 7th and 8th November, 2019 In University of Port Harcourt. https://aeian.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/08/EIA-Presentations-Portharcourt.pdf.
Omotoso, A. J., Omotoso, E. A. and Morufu, O. R. (2021). Potential Toxic levels of Cyanide and Heavy Metals in Cassava Flour Sold in Selected Markets in Oke Ogun Community, Oyo State, Nigeria, 01 July 2021, PREPRINT (Version 1) available at Research Square [https://doi.org/10.21203/rs.3.rs-658748/v1].
Onyemesili, O. O., Egbueri, J. C. and Ezugwu, C. K. (2020). Assessing the pollution status, ecological and health risks of surface waters in Nnewi urban, Nigeria: Implications of poor waste disposal. Environmental Forensics. https://doi.org/10.1080/15275922.2020. 1850564.
Phippen, B., Horvath, C., Nordin, R. and Nagpal, N. (2008). Ambient water quality guidelines for iron: overview. Ministry of Environment Province of British Columbia.
Premoboere, E. A. and Raimi, M. O. (2018). Corporate Civil Liability and Compensation Regime for Environmental Pollution in the Niger Delta. International Journal of Recent Advances in Multidisciplinary Research. Vol. 05, Issue 06, pp. 3870-3893, June, 2018.
Raimi, M. O., Mcfubara, K. G., Abisoye, O. S., Ifeanyichukwu, E. C., Henry, S. O., and Raimi, G. A. (2021a). Responding to the call through Translating Science into Impact: Building an Evidence-Based Approaches to Effectively Curb Public Health Emergencies [COVID-19 Crisis]. Global Journal of Epidemiology and Infectious Disease, 1(1). DOI: 10.31586/gjeid.2021.010102. Retrieved from https://www.scipublications.com/journal/index.php/gjeid/article/view/72.
Raimi, M. O., Emeka, C. L., Ebikapaye, O., Angalabiri, C., Christopher, O. and Atoyebi, B (2021b). COVID-19 Decision Impacts: Vaccine Hesitancy, its Barriers and Impact Studies: Taking Bayelsa State as an Example., 27 May 2021, PREPRINT (Version 1) available at Research Square [https://doi.org/10.21203/rs.3.rs-566532/v1]
Raimi, O. M., Lucky, E. C., Okoyen, E., Clement A., Ogbointuwei C. and Babatunde A. (2021c) Making Better Informed, More Confident COVID-19 Decisions: Vaccine Hesitancy, Its Barriers and Impact Studies: Taking Bayelsa State as an Example. Int J Vaccine Immunizat 5(1): dx.doi. org/10.16966/2470-9948.126.
Raimi, M. O., Ayinla, L. O. and Ogah, A. (2021d). First to Respond, Last to Leave: The Role of Para-Military Agencies in Disaster Management: Evidence from Nigeria. Sumerianz Journal of Medical and Healthcare, 2021, Vol. 4, No. 2, pp. 96-100 ISSN(e): 2663-421X, ISSN(p): 2706-8404 Website: https://www.sumerianz.com DOI: https://doi.org/10.47752/sjmh.42.96.100.
Raimi, M. O., Abiola I., Ogah, A., Dodeye, E. O. and Aziba-anyam, G. R. (2021e). Exploring How Human Activities Disturb the Balance of Biogeochemical Cycles: Evidence from the Carbon, Nitrogen and Hydrologic Cycles. IntechOpen. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.98533. https://www.intechopen.com/online-first/77696.
Raimi M. O., Clinton I. E. and Olawale H. S (2021f). Problematic Groundwater Contaminants: Impact of Surface and Ground Water Quality on the Environment in Ebocha-Obrikom Oil and Gas Producing Area of Rivers State, Nigeria. Oral Presentation Presented at the United Research Forum. 2nd International E-Conference on Geological and Environmental Sustainability during July 29-30, 2021.
Raimi, M. O. and Raimi, A. G. (2020). The Toughest Triage in Decision Impacts: Rethinking Scientific Evidence for Environmental and Human Health Action in the Times of Concomitant Global Crises. CPQ Medicine, 11(1), 01-05.
Raimi, M. O., Moses, T., Okoyen, E., Sawyerr, H. O., Joseph, B. O. and Oyinlola, B. O (2020a). “A Beacon for Dark Times: Rethinking Scientific Evidence for Environmental and Public Health Action in the Coronavirus Diseases 2019 Era” Medical and Research Microbiology, Vol. 1, Issues 3.
Raimi, M. O., Ihuoma, B. A., Esther, O. U., Abdulraheem A. F., Opufou, T., Deinkuro, N. S., Adebayo, P. A. and Adeniji, A. O. (2020b). “Health Impact Assessment: Expanding Public Policy Tools for Promoting Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in Nigeria”. EC Emergency Medicine and Critical Care 4.9 (2020).
Raimi, M. O., Sawyerr, H. O., and Isah, H. M., (2020c). Health risk exposure to cypermethrin: A case study of kano state, Nigeria. Journal of Agriculture. 7th International Conference on Public Healthcare and Epidemiology. September 14-15, 2020 | Tokyo, Japan.
Raimi, M. O. (2019). 21st Century Emerging Issues in Pollution Control. 6th Global Summit and Expo on Pollution Control May 06-07, 2019 Amsterdam, Netherlands.
Raimi, M. O., Omidiji, A. O., Adeolu, T. A., Odipe, O. E. and Babatunde, A. (2019a). An Analysis of Bayelsa State Water Challenges on the Rise and Its Possible Solutions. Acta Scientific Agriculture 3.8 (2019): 110-125. DOI: 10.31080/ASAG.2019.03.0572.
Raimi, M. O, Suleiman, R. M, Odipe, O. E, Salami, J. T, Oshatunberu, M., Olalekan, A. S. and Christianah, M. B. (2019b). Women Role in Environmental Conservation and Development in Nigeria. Ecology & Conservation Science; 1(2): DOI: 10.19080/ECOA.2019.01.555558. Volume 1 Issue 2 - July 2019. https://juniperpublishers.com/ecoa/pdf/ECOA.MS.ID.555558.pdf.
Raimi, M. O., Bilewu, O. O., Adio, Z. O. and Abdulrahman, H (2019c). Women Contributions to Sustainable Environments in Nigeria. Journal of Scientific Research in Allied Sciences. 5(4), 35-51. ISSN NO. 2455-5800. DOI No. 10.26838/JUSRES.2019.5.4.104.
Raimi, M. O., Abdulraheem, A. F, Major, I., Odipe, O. E., Isa H. M. and Onyeche C (2019d). The Sources of Water Supply, Sanitation Facilities and Hygiene Practices in an Island Community: Amassoma, Bayelsa State, Nigeria. Public Health Open Access 2019, 3(1): 000134. ISSN: 2578-5001. DOI: 10.23880/phoa-16000134.
Raimi, M. O., Omidiji, A. O., Abdulraheem, A. F. and Ochayi, E. O (2018a). A Survey of Hand Washing Behaviour and Awareness among Health Care Workers in Health Care Facilities in Kubwa District of Bwari Area Council, F.C.T. Abuja, Nigeria. Annals of Ecology and Environmental Science. Volume 2, Issue 2, 2018, PP 1-18.
Raimi, M. O., Tonye, V. O., Omidiji, A O. and Oluwaseun, E. O (2018b). Environmental Health and Climate Change in Nigeria. World Congress on Global Warming. Valencia, Spain. December 06-07, 2018.
Raimi, M. O. and Sabinus, C. E., (2017a). Influence of Organic Amendment on Microbial Activities and Growth of Pepper Cultured on Crude Oil Contaminated Niger Delta Soil. International Journal of Economy, Energy and Environment. Vol. 2, No. 4, 2017, pp. 56-76. DOI: 10.11648/j.ijeee.20170204.12.
Raimi, M. O. and Sabinus C. E. (2017b). An Assessment of Trace Elements in Surface and Ground Water Quality in the Ebocha-Obrikom Oil and Gas Producing Area of Rivers State, Nigeria. International Journal for Scientific and Engineering Research (Ijser): Volume 8, Issue 6, July Edition. ISSN: 2229-5518.
Raimi, M. O., Pigha, T. K. and Ochayi, E. O (2017). Water-Related Problems and Health Conditions in the Oil Producing Communities in Central Senatorial District of Bayelsa State. Imperial Journal of Interdisciplinary Research (IJIR). Vol-3, Issue-6, ISSN: 2454-1362.
Rodríguez, M. C., Barsanti, L., Passarelli, V., Evangelista, V., Conforti, V. and Gualtieri P. (2007). Effects of chromium on photosynthetic and photoreceptive apparatus of the alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Environ Res 105(2): 234–239.
Sawyerr, O. H., Odipe, O. E., Olalekan, R. M. and Ogungbemi, O. H. (2018). Assessment of cyanide and some heavy metals concentration in consumable cassava flour “lafun” across Osogbo metropolis, Nigeria. MOJ Eco Environ Sci. 2018;3(6):369‒372. DOI: 10.15406/mojes.2018.03.00115.
Suleiman, R. M., Raimi M. O. and Sawyerr H. O (2019). A Deep Dive into the Review of National Environmental Standards and Regulations Enforcement Agency (NESREA) Act. International Research Journal of Applied Sciences. pISSN: 2663-5577, eISSN: 2663-5585. DOI No. Irjas.2019.123.123. www.scirange.com. https://scirange.com/abstract/irjas.2019.108.125.
Tellez-Plaza, M., Jones, M. R., Dominguez-Lucas, A., Guallar, E. and Navas-Acien, A. (2013a). Cadmium exposure and clinical cardiovascular disease: a systematic review. Curr Atheroscler Rep 15(10):356, PMID: 23955722, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11883- 013-0356-2.
Tinkov, A. A., Filippini, T., Ajsuvakova, O. P., Skalnaya, M. G., Aaseth, J., Bjørklund, G, Gatiatulina, E. R., Popova, E. V, Nemereshina, O. N, Huang, P. T, Vinceti, M. and Skalny, A. V. (2018). Cadmium and atherosclerosis: a review of toxicological mechanisms and a Meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies. Environ Res 162:240–260, PMID: 29358116, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2018.01.008.
Tinkov A. A, Filippini T., Ajsuvakova, O. P, Skalnaya, M. G, Aaseth, J., Bjørklund G., Gatiatulina, E. R., Popova, E. V, Nemereshina, O. N, Huang, P. T, Vinceti, M., Skalny, A. V. (2018). Cadmium and atherosclerosis: A review of toxicological mechanisms and a meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies. Environ Res. 2018 Apr;162:240-260. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2018.01.008. Epub. Feb 4. PMID: 29358116.
Ukah, B. U., Egbueri, J. C., Unigwe, C. O. and Ubido, O. E. (2019). Extent of heavy metals pollution and health risk assessment of groundwater in a densely populated industrial area, Lagos, Nigeria. International Journal of Energy and Water Resources, 3(4), 291–303. https://doi.org/10.1007/s42108-019-00039-3
USEPA. (2019). United States-Environmental Protection Agency (2019). Regional Screening Levels (RSLs) - Equations https://www.epa.gov/risk/regional-screening levels-rsls-equations (accessed 26.08.19).
USEPA (US Environmental Protection Agency) (2017). National recommended water quality criteria-aquatic life criteria table and human health criteria table. https://www.epa.gov.wqc/nationalrecommended-water-quality criteria-aquatic-life-criteria-table.
Valko, MMHCM., Morris, H., Cronin, MTD. (2005). Metals, toxicity and oxidative stress. Curr Med Chem 12(10): 1161–1208.
Vuori, K-M. (1995). Direct and Indirect effects of iron on river eco systems. Annal Zoo Fennici 32: 317–3.
Wolińska, A., Stępniewska, Z., Włosek, R. (2013). The influence of old leather tannery district on chromium contamination of soils, water and plants. Nat Sci 5(2A): 253–258.
Yongsheng, W., Qihui, L., Qian, T. (2011). Effect of Pb on growth, accumulation and quality component of tea plant. Procedia Engineering 18: 214–219.
Zayed, A. M, Terry, N. (2003). Chromium in the environment: factors affecting biological remediation. Plant Soil 249(1): 139–156.
Zhang, W., Ma, L., Abuduwaili, J., Ge, Y., Issanova, G., Saparov, G (2019). Hydro-chemical characteristics and irrigation suitability of surface water in the Syr Darya River, Kazakhstan. Environ Monit Assess 191:572. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-019-7713-8
Zhou, Y., Li, P., Xue, L., Dong, Z., Li, D. (2020). Solute geochemistry and groundwater quality for drinking and irrigation purposes: a case study in Xinle City, North China. Geochemistry. https://doi.org/ 10.1016/j.chemer.2020.125609.
تعداد مشاهده مقاله: 772
تعداد دریافت فایل اصل مقاله: 560